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Since 183, beef cattle from the southern states have been transported to the northern cities. After the American Civil War 1861–1865, the prairies in Texas harbored an increasing population of about five million crossbreds of British beef cattle and Texas Longhorn, residing underneath semi-feral or feral circumstances. Starting in 1866, massive herds were rounded up and pushed north as meat-on-the-hoof. The now romanticized period of the cowboys ended after the disastrous winter of 1886–1887, when 9% of the prairie cattle perished. British Hereford and Angus cattle then grew to become the predominant beef cattle. These had been kept under more intensive management with breeding recorded in herd books as already widespread for dairy breeds . dwarf zebus . However, these nations also depend 35 acknowledged zebu breeds. A giant variety of Indo-Pakistani zebu breeds and landraces were described in the nineteenth century . For several breeds herd books had been established in the early th century. Since the 19th century a number of breeds were exported to Southeast Asia and the Americas . Most zebu breeds are developed as draught cattle , however Sahiwal, Red Sindhi and Gir are specialised dairy cattle and the Kankrej and Ongole are dairy-work cattle. The southern Indian Mysore breeds had been already bred in the seventeenth century for fast street transport . The breed formation changed the partitioning of the variety in 3 ways. First, teams of herds constituting a breed turned uniform and differences between breeds had been emphasized. Second, profitable breeds unfold beyond their area of origin and were even, as detailed below, exported to different international locations or continents. In distinction, regionally tailored however less productive breeds declined in number or disappeared. Third, genetic isolation of breeds decreased the variety on the molecular level, which could be monitored through a rise in homozygosity. In the Netherlands the cattle population suffered significantly from the rinderpest epidemics in 1768 and 1786. Afterwards, the cattle population was replenished with cattle from Denmark and within a number of generations regained its dairy productivity . In 1874, the first Dutch herd guide was established and in 1879 the second in the province of Friesland. This documented the provenance and was helpful for exported cattle as was required by overseas consumers. Dutch exports to European countries and America began to flourish after 188, which led to the emergence of the extremely productive Holstein-Friesian. The black-pied color, at that time commonest within the north of the Netherlands, became an international trademark of the Dutch dairy cattle. In 19 half the Dutch nationwide cattle population consisted of Black Pied Dutch-Friesians and their numbers saved growing.
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